By definition of optimum structure of machine and tractor park and its use it is necessary to develop technology of cultivation of crops for drawing up model, to define amount of works, to prove agrotechnical terms of their performance. It is also necessary to define performance standards for each tractor and each farm vehicle, to define a fuel consumption for each hitch.
The correct use of fertilizers (in certain ratios and in appropriate terms) provides not only growth of productivity, but also promotes increase of resistance of all cultures to adverse conditions. Fertilizers are also important means of improvement of quality of agricultural production: they raise the content of sugar in beet, a squirrel – in grains of wheat and corn, starch – in potatoes, etc.
Terms of application of fertilizers, relief and nature of preparation of a field with a big bias (3-4%) part of nutrients from the fertilizers introduced in the fall or in the winter wash away thawed snow. On an untilled field of loss increase almost twice in comparison with introduction on zyablevy plowing.
Justification of a choice of farm vehicles and tractors, their agregatirovaniye, coefficients of working in shifts, productivity of units is important. Because tractors are aggregated with various cars and tools, it is necessary to determine number of possible days which they can work in each agrotechnical period.
Drawing up the flow chart consists in consecutive adoption of concrete decisions. On the basis of methods of programming of a crop determine potentially possible level of a crop by the major limiting factors: on security with solar energy, moisture security and thermal resources. Productivity is accepted equal to the minimum value for the specified limiting factors. For the accepted productivity define conditions of its achievement and the list of the main and auxiliary technological processes of a production cycle.
At calculation of efficiency of use of MTP received the following indicators: replaceable development at the MTZ-80 tractor – 4,89 u.e.g, at DT-75 – 7 u.e.g; fuel consumption on 1 u.e.g at MTZ-80 - 10,1 kg /.. , at DT-75 - 6,3 kg /.. ; working in shifts coefficient at MTZ-80 – 2,06, at DT-75 – 1,03; the efficiency of tractor park made 0,17; power security made at MTZ-80 – 412,3 kW, at DT-75 – 117,6 kW.
Fertilizers should be introduced reasonably, according to data of the agrotechnical analysis of soils and needs for them of the grown-up culture. At superficial application of fertilizers, especially nitric, it is necessary to close up immediately them to the soil as losses, for example, of nitrogen from a dry surface in a day can make to 100%.
When filling it is necessary to bring in strict accordance with agroterms all works from flow charts and not to make mistakes as the plan of the mechanized works is a basis for creation of schedules of a mashinoispolzovaniye of tractors.
Preparation of fertilizers for introduction includes three main operations: crushing, sifting and mixing. Apply universal grinders like ISU-4 to crushing of packed fertilizers, rastarivatel - AIR-20 grinders, for sifting — reshetny devices of grinders and a grokhota of GZh-1, and are suitable for mixing the tukosmesitelny installations similar to concrete mixers. Fertilizers crush no more than 5 mm to the size of particles. For mixing of fertilizers the tukosmesitelny UTS-30, SMU-30 and SZU-20 installations are used
- on the range of speeds at which this operation according to agrotechnical requirements is carried out – when scattering mineral fertilizers RUM-8 spreader the interval of working speeds makes 10-13 km/h.
The main forms of a relief defining character of a surface of the territory are interframe watersheds, beams, ravines. Watersheds in a form convex, narrow and high. Slopes of watersheds have various exposition and the steepness, but slopes of a northern and southern exposition prevail. Slopes by the steepness 1-3z are most extended. Quite deep hollows of a drain which give wavy character to watersheds are widely developed on slopes. Frame forms of a relief gained development in all territory of economy.